Attala-APA-130 - Geschiedenis

Attala-APA-130 - Geschiedenis


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Attala

Een provincie in Mississippi. (APA-130: dp. 12.450; 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 17.7 k.; cpl. 536; trp. 1.561; a. 1 5", 12 40 mm., 10 20 mm .; cl. Haskell; T. VC2-S-AP5)

Attala (APA-130) werd op 18 juli 1944 in Wilmington, Californië, vastgelegd onder een contract van de Maritime Commission (MCV-romp 46) door de California Shipbuilding Co.; gelanceerd op 27 september 1944; gesponsord door mevrouw Paul Piggot; en tegelijkertijd overgenomen door de marine en in gebruik genomen op 30 november 1944, Comdr. William S.G. Davis in opdracht.

Na een shakedown-training langs de westkust, vertrok het aanvalstransport op 31 januari 1945 uit Seattle, Washington. Ze stopte bij Pearl Harbor om troepen en uitrusting in te schepen en vertrok op 9 februari naar Eniwetok. Attala drong door naar Iwo J Jima, waar ze op 13 maart aankwam. Het schip bracht daar enkele dagen door met het ontschepen van troepen en het lossen van uitrusting. Op de 18e meerde Attala aan in Saipan om gewonde mariniers op te vangen voor de terugreis naar de Verenigde Staten. Ze stopte even bij Pearl Harbor om passagiers van boord te laten gaan en ging toen verder naar San Francisco.

Op 18 april keerde Attala terug naar Pearl Harbor. Daarna begon ze aan een week van intensieve amfibische training bij Maui. Attala nam vervangend personeel aan boord, laadde lading en ging op 14 mei van start. Ze stopte bij Saipan en Ulithi voordat ze op 5 juni voor anker ging in de Golf van Leyte. Op die dag nam ze dienst als ontvangend schip.

Attala verliet de Filippijnen op 17 juni en stopte bij Eniwetok en Pearl Harbor voordat hij op 8 juli in San Francisco aankwam. Van 12 tot 20 juli lag Attala in het droogdok op een scheepswerf in Everett, Washington. Het schip vertrok op 24 juli vanaf de westkust en bereikte op 5 augustus Eniwetok, waar het zich bij een konvooi op weg naar Okinawa voegde.

Op 21 augustus liet Attala het anker vallen voor het strand van Hagushi, Okinawa. Begin september nam ze zwijnentroepen en uitrusting aan die gepland waren voor de bezettingsdienst in Korea. Op de 7e arriveerde ze in Jinsen, Korea, en na het ontschepen van haar lading keerde ze terug naar Okinawa.

Attala nam mariniers aan boord voor transport naar Tsingtao, China. Ze begon ze daar op 21 november te ontschorsen. Attala verliet de Chinese wateren op de 23e en begon aan de lange reis naar de Verenigde Staten. Attala maakte slechts één ste onderweg in Manilla, Filippijnen, en arriveerde op 18 december in Los Angeles, Californië.

Na reparaties aan de reis en een periode van vrijheid voor de bemanning, hervatte Attala de operaties. Op 14 januari 1946 vertrok ze naar San Diego. Het transport voer op de 23e door het Panamakanaal en ging toen verder naar Norfolk, Virginia. Ze ging op 1 februari voor anker bij Hampton Roads en begon met de deactivering

Proces op de Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia. Op 26 februari werd Attala buiten dienst gesteld. Ze werd overgebracht naar de War Shipping Administration voor verwijdering. Haar naam werd op 20 maart 1946 van de marinelijst geschrapt.

Attala verdiende één strijdster voor haar dienst in de Tweede Wereldoorlog.


Tweede Wereldoorlog dienst

Attala werd op 18 juli 1944 in Wilmington, Californië, onder een contract van de Maritime Commission (MCV-romp 46) vastgelegd door de California Shipbuilding Corporation, gelanceerd op 27 september 1944, gesponsord door mevrouw Paul Piggot en tegelijkertijd overgenomen door de marine en in gebruik genomen op 30 november 1944 , bevelhebber William SG Davis.

Na een shakedown-training langs de westkust, vertrok het aanvalstransport op 31 januari 1945 uit Seattle, Washington. Ze stopte bij Pearl Harbor om troepen en uitrusting in te schepen en ging op 9 februari op weg naar Eniwetok. Attala doorgestoten naar Iwo Jima, waar ze op 13 maart aankwam. Het schip bracht daar enkele dagen door met het ontschepen van troepen en het lossen van uitrusting. Op de 18e, Attala afgemeerd in Saipan om gewonde mariniers op te vangen voor terugreis naar de Verenigde Staten. Ze stopte even bij Pearl Harbor om passagiers van boord te laten gaan en ging toen verder naar San Francisco, Californië.

Op 18 april, Attala terug naar Pearl Harbor. Daarna begon ze aan een week van intensieve amfibische training bij Maui. Attala nam vervangend personeel in, laadde lading en ging op 14 mei van start. Ze stopte bij Saipan en Ulithi voordat ze op 5 juni voor anker ging in de Golf van Leyte. Op die dag nam ze dienst als ontvangend schip.

Attala verliet de Filippijnen op 17 juni en stopte bij Eniwetok en Pearl Harbor voordat ze op 8 juli in San Francisco aankwam. Van 12 t/m 20 juli, Attala was in het droogdok op een scheepswerf in Everett, Washington. Het schip vertrok op 24 juli vanaf de westkust en bereikte op 5 augustus Eniwetok, waar het zich bij een konvooi voegde dat op weg was naar Okinawa.

Op 21 augustus, Attala liet het anker vallen voor het Hagushi-strand, Okinawa. Begin september nam ze troepen en uitrusting aan boord die bestemd waren voor de bezettingsdienst in Korea. Op de 7e arriveerde ze in Jinsen, Korea, en na het ontschepen keerde ze terug naar Okinawa.

Attala nam mariniers aan boord voor transport naar Tsingtao, China. Ze begon ze daar op 21 november te ontschorsen. Attala verliet de Chinese wateren op de 23e en begon aan de lange reis naar de Verenigde Staten. Slechts één tussenstop onderweg in Manilla, Filipijnen, Attala arriveerde op 18 december in Los Angeles, Californië.

Na de reis, reparaties en een periode van vrijheid voor de bemanning, Attala operaties hervat. Op 14 januari 1946 vertrok ze naar San Diego, Californië. Het transport voer op de 23e door het Panamakanaal en ging toen verder naar Norfolk, Virginia. Ze ging op 1 februari voor anker bij Hampton Roads en begon met de deactivering.

Ze ging naar de Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia, en op 26 februari 1946 ' Attala werd ontmanteld. Ze werd overgebracht naar de War Shipping Administration voor verwijdering. Haar naam werd op 20 maart 1946 van de marinelijst geschrapt.

Attala trad op 3 maart 1946 toe tot de National Defense Reserve Fleet in James River, Virginia. [1] In 1954 Attala werd uit de reservevloot teruggetrokken als onderdeel van een reparatieprogramma, GAA-nr. Atl. & Gulf, en keerde toen terug. [ 1 ] Op 15 maart 1974 werd ze verkocht aan de heer Isaac Varela, voor $ 727.007, om te worden gesloopt. [ 2 ] Op 3 april 1974 werd ze om 1000 EDT uit de reservevloot teruggetrokken en naar de sloopwerf gestuurd. [ 2 ]


Het bloedbad van Camilla (1868)

Het bloedbad van Camilla was de nasleep van een politieke bijeenkomst in Mitchell County, Georgia, die eindigde met talloze doden en gewonden op het plein van het gerechtsgebouw. Naar aanleiding van de Georgia grondwet van 1868, drieëndertig Afro-Amerikaanse mannen, allemaal Republikeinen en vaak genoemd de originele 33, werden verkozen tot lid van de Georgia State Assembly, tijdens de eerste jaren van de wederopbouw. Ze waren enkele van de eerste Afro-Amerikaanse staatswetgevers in de Verenigde Staten. Na de verkiezingen spande de blanke Democratische meerderheid in de wetgevende macht samen om alle zwarte en gemengde leden uit de Assemblee te verwijderen.

De originele 33 werden vervolgens op 3 september 1868 verdreven. Philip Joiner, een vertegenwoordiger van Zuidwest-Georgia, maakte plannen voor een mars en bijeenkomst op het gerechtsgebouw in Mitchell County, ongeveer vijfentwintig mijl verderop, om te protesteren tegen de uitzetting. De mars begon op de ochtend van 19 september 1868 in Albany, Georgia. In elke passerende stad sloten meer mensen zich aan bij de mars, tot er bijna driehonderd mannen waren, zowel zwart als blank. Ze droegen geweren en wapens met zich mee naar de stad Camilla en werden opgewacht door de plaatselijke sheriff, Mumford S. Poore en een burgercomité. Poore waarschuwde de deelnemers om hun wapens in te leveren, anders zouden ze op het dorpsplein met geweld worden geconfronteerd, ook al was het in die tijd gebruikelijk en legaal om wapens te dragen.

De demonstranten weigerden en gingen verder naar het plein voor de rechtbank voor de rally. Lokale blanken die zich verzamelden, werden snel vervangen door Poore voordat de demonstranten arriveerden en zich in de winkelpuien van de stad positioneerden. Toen de demonstranten het plein opreden, werden ze van alle kanten beschoten. De deelnemers trokken zich terug in de moerassen buiten de stad, maar minstens vijftien werden gedood en nog eens veertig raakten gewond. Joiner overleefde de aanval en legde later getuigenis af voor het Freedman's8217s Bureau. In de weken die volgden, trokken blanke mannen van Camilla door het platteland om zwarten te slaan en te waarschuwen dat ze zouden worden vermoord als ze bij de volgende verkiezingen zouden stemmen. De intimidatie verminderde de Republikeinse stemmen aanzienlijk en geen van hen de originele 33 terug naar de Georgia Assembly.

In 1976 eerde de Black Caucus van de Georgia Assembly de Origineel 33 met een standbeeld dat de opkomst van de Afro-Amerikaanse politici verbeeldt, op het terrein van de Georgia State Capital, in Atlanta. Het monument "Verdreven vanwege hun kleur", gemaakt door beeldhouwer John Riddle, heeft een inscriptie van de namen van de drieëndertig leden op de basis, samen met de provincies die ze vertegenwoordigden. Het waren: Vertegenwoordigers Philip Joiner (Dougherty), Malcolm Claiborn (Burke), Tunis Campell Jr. (McIntosh), Samuel Williams (Harris), John Warren (Burke), Abraham Smith (Muscogee), Alexander Stone (Jefferson), Alfred Richardson (Clarke), Robert Lumpkin (Macon), Peter O'8217Neil (Baldwin), George Linder (Laurens), James M. Simms (Chatham), Ulysses L. Houston (Bryan), William A. Golden (Liberty), Samuel Gardner (Warren), FH Fyall (Macon), Monday Floyd (Morgan), Madison Davis (Clarke), John T. Costin (Talbot), Romulus Moore (Columbia), Abram Colby (Greene), George H. Clower (Monroe), Edwin Belcher (Wilkes), Thomas A. Allen (Jasper), William Henry Harrison (Hancock), Thomas Beard (Richmond), William Guilford (Upson), Henry McNeil Turner (Bibb), James Ward Porter (Chatham) en Eli Barnes ( Hancock) en senatoren Tunis Campell Sr. (McIntosh, Liberty en Tattnail), Aaron Alpeoria Bradley (Chatham, Bryan en Effingham) en George Wallace (Hancock, Baldwin en Washington).

In 1998, 130 jaar later, werd het bloedbad van Camilla officieel publiekelijk erkend door de inwoners van Camilla.


Bloedbad in New Orleans (1866)

De New Orleans Massacre, ook wel bekend als de New Orleans Race Riot, vond plaats op 30 juli 1866. Hoewel de rellen typerend waren voor tal van raciale conflicten tijdens de wederopbouw, had dit incident een speciale betekenis. Het wakkerde de nationale oppositie aan tegen het gematigde wederopbouwbeleid van president Andrew Johnson en luidde in 1867 een veel ingrijpender congreswederopbouw in.

De rel vond plaats buiten het Mechanics Institute in New Orleans terwijl zwart-witte afgevaardigden de Louisiana Constitutionele Conventie bijwoonden. De Conventie was opnieuw bijeengekomen omdat de wetgevende macht van de staat Louisiana onlangs de zwarte codes had aangenomen en weigerde het stemrecht uit te breiden tot zwarte mannen. Eveneens op 12 mei 1866 eindigde vier jaar van de door het Union Army opgelegde staat van beleg en werd burgemeester John T. Monroe, die het stadsbestuur had geleid vóór de burgeroorlog, hersteld als waarnemend burgemeester. Monroe was een actieve aanhanger van de Confederatie geweest.

Terwijl een delegatie van 130 zwarte inwoners van New Orleans achter de Amerikaanse vlag marcheerde naar het Mechanics Institute, organiseerde en leidde burgemeester Monroe een menigte ex-confederaten, blanke supremacisten en leden van de New Orleans Police Force naar het Instituut om hen de weg te blokkeren. De burgemeester beweerde dat het hun bedoeling was om eventuele onrust die voortvloeit uit de Conventie een halt toe te roepen, maar de echte reden was om te voorkomen dat de afgevaardigden bijeenkwamen.

Toen de delegatie binnen een paar blokken van het Instituut kwam, werd er geschoten, maar de groep mocht door naar de vergaderzaal. Toen ze het Instituut bereikten, vielen de politie en leden van de blanke maffia hen aan, waarbij ze enkele van de demonstranten sloegen, terwijl anderen het gebouw binnenstormden voor de veiligheid.

Nu omsingelden de politie en het gepeupel het Instituut en openden het vuur op het gebouw en schoten lukraak in de ramen. Toen stormde de menigte het gebouw binnen en begon op de menigte afgevaardigden te schieten. Toen de maffia geen munitie meer had, werden ze teruggeslagen door de afgevaardigden. De menigte verliet het gebouw, hergroepeerde zich en keerde terug, brak de deuren af ​​en vuurde opnieuw op de grotendeels ongewapende afgevaardigden.

Terwijl het vuren voortduurde, probeerden sommige afgevaardigden te vluchten of zich over te geven. Sommige van degenen die zich overgaven, voornamelijk zwarten, werden ter plaatse gedood. Degenen die renden werden achtervolgd terwijl de moord zich over verschillende blokken rond het Instituut verspreidde. Op dat moment waren zowel de relschoppers als de slachtoffers mensen die nooit bij het Instituut waren. Afro-Amerikanen werden op straat doodgeschoten of van trams getrokken om standrechtelijk geslagen of gedood te worden. Tegen het einde van het bloedbad waren ten minste 200 zwarte oorlogsveteranen van de Unie gedood, waaronder veertig afgevaardigden op de Conventie. In totaal werden 238 mensen gedood en 46 raakten gewond.


Aardvarkens graven enorme holen

Een dier zo groot als een aardvarken heeft een vergelijkbaar ruim hol nodig, wat verklaart waarom de huizen van deze zoogdieren wel 30 of 40 voet lang kunnen zijn. Een typisch volwassen aardvarken graaft voor zichzelf een "huishol", waar het de meeste tijd leeft, evenals verschillende andere, kleinere holen in het omliggende gebied waar het kan rusten of zich kan verstoppen terwijl het op zoek is naar voedsel. Het huishol is vooral belangrijk tijdens de paartijd en biedt waardevolle beschutting voor pasgeboren aardvarkens. Nadat aardvarkens hun holen hebben verlaten, stervend of verhuizend naar groenere weiden, worden deze structuren vaak gebruikt door andere Afrikaanse dieren in het wild, waaronder wrattenzwijnen, wilde honden, slangen en uilen.


Perlembagaan Persekutuan Maleisië/Badan Kehakiman

(a) satu di Negeri-Negeri Tanah Melayu, yang dikenali sebagai Mahkamah Tinggi di Malaya dan yang mempunyai pejabat pendaftarannya yang utama di mana-mana tempat di Negeri-Negeri Tanah Melayu yang ditentukan oleh Yang di- Negeri Sabah dan Sarawak, yang dikenali sebagai Mahkamah Tinggi di Sabah en Sarawak dan yang mempunyai pejabat pendaftarannya yang utama di mana-mana tempat di Negeri Sabah en Sarawak yang ditentukan oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong (c) (Dimansuhkan),

dan mana-mana mahkamah bawahan yang diperuntukkan oleh undang-undang persekutuan dan Mahkamah Tinggi dan mahkamah bawahan itu hendaklah mempunyai apa-apa bidang kuasa dan kuasa yang diberikan oleh atau diundawah undangtu-an.

(1A) Mahkamah yang disebut dalam Fasal (1) tidaklah mempunyai bidang kuasa berkenaan dengan apa-apa perkara dalam bidang kuasa mahkamah Syariah.

1B

(a) bidang kuasa tot memutuskan rayuan terhadap keputusan Mahkamah Tinggi atau seseorang hakimnya (kecuali keputusan Mahkamah Tinggi yang diberikan oleh pendaftar atau pegawai lain Mahkamah itu dan yang boleh hakimnya -apa bidang kuasa lain yang diberikan oleh atau di bawah undang-undang persekutuan.

(2) Maka hendaklah ada suatu mahkamah yang dikenali sebagai Mahkamah Persekutuan dan yang mempunyai pejabat pendaftarannya yang utama di mana-mana tempat yang ditentukan oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong, dan Mahkamah Persekutuy hendakyang bid

(a) bidang kuasa tot memutuskan rayuan terhadap keputusan Mahkamah Rayuan, Mahkamah Tinggi atau seseorang hakimnya (b) apa-apa bidang kuasa asal atau running yang dinyatakan dalam Perkara 128 dan 130 dan (c) yang apaku-apaikaang di bawah undang-undang persekutuan.

(3) Tertakluk kepada apa-apa batasan yang dikenakan oleh atau di bawah undang-undang persekutuan, apa-apa perintah, dekri, penghakiman atau proza ​​mahkamah-mahkamah yang disebut dalam Fasal (1) atau mana-mandak-henang hakimnar Oleh keadaannya) berkuat kuasa dan berkesan sepenuhnya mengikut maksudnya di seluruh Lumpur, dan boleh dilaksanakan atau dikuatkuasakan di mana-mana bahagian Lumpur dengan sewajarnya dan undang-undang Lumpur boleh membuat peruntukan Supaya Mahkamah di satu bahagian Lumpur atau pegawainya bertindak membantu Mahkamah di suatu bahagian lain .

(4) Pada menentukan tempat pejabat pendaftaran utama bagi Mahkamah Tinggi di Sabah dan Sarawak, Yang di-Pertuan Agong hendaklah bertindak atas nasihat Perdana Menteri yang hendaklah berunding dengan Ketua-Ketua Menteri bagi Negeri Sabah dan Sarawak dan Hakima.

Perkara 122. Keanggotaan Mahkamah Persekutuan.

(1) Mahkamah Persekutuan hendaklah terdiri daripada seorang yang dipertua Mahkamah (yang digelar "Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan"), Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan, Hakim-Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi dan, sehingga diperuntya mekan seluiint 1] [2] orang hakim lain dan apa-apa bilangan hakim tambahan yang dilantik menurut Fasal (1A).

(1A) Walau apa woordspeling apa-apa jua yang tekandung dalam Perlembagaan ini, Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang bertindak atas nasihat Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan, boleh melantik mana-mana orang tamba telah memegang jawatan kegihakiman di Maleisië bagi Mahkamah Persekutuan bagi apa-apa maksud atau bagi apa-apa tempoh masa yang ditentukan olehnya:

Dengan syarat bahawa tiada hakim tambahan yang sedemikian menjadi tidak layak to memegang jawatan oleh sebab dia telah mencapai umur enam puluh enam tahun.

(2) Seseorang hakim Mahkamah Rayuan selain Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan boleh bersidang sebagai hakim mahkamah Persekutuan jika Ketua Hakim Negara berpendapat bahawa kepentingan keadilan keadilan menghendaki yang sedemikian, dan hakim itukan henaddaklahdina

Perkara 122A. Keanggotaan Mahkamah Rayuan.

(1) Mahkamah Rayuan hendaklah terdiri daripada seorang pengerusi (yang digelar "Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan") dan, sehingga diperuntukkan selainnya melalui perintah oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong, sepuluh [3] orang hakim lain.

(2) Seseorang hakim Mahkamah Tinggi boleh bersidang sebagai hakim Mahkamah Rayuan jika Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan berpendapat bahawa kepentingan keadilan menghendaki yang sedemikian, dan hakim itu hendaklah dinamakan bagi maksud ke .

Perkara 122AA. Keanggotaan Mahkamah Tinggi.

(1) Setiap Mahkamah Tinggi hendaklah terdiri daripada seorang Hakim Besar dan tidak kurang daripada empat orang hakim yang lain tetapi bilangan hakim yang lain itu tidaklah boleh, sehingga diperuntukkan selainnya melalui perintah oleh

(a) empat puluh tujuh, di Mahkamah Tinggi di Malaya dan (b) sepuluh, di Mahkamah Tinggi di Sabah dan Sarawak.

(2) Mana-mana orang yang layak un dilantik sebagai hakim Mahkamah Tinggi boleh bersidang sebagai hakim Mahkamah it itu jika ditetapkan bagi maksud itu (mengikut kehendak keadaan) gemengd Perkara 122B.

Perkara 122AB. Pelantikan pesuruhjaya kehakiman.

(1) Supaya segera diselesaikan urusan Mahkamah Tinggi di Malaya dan Mahkamah Tinggi di Sabah dan Sarawak, Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang bertindak atas nasihat Perdana Menteri, selepas berunding dengan Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekuika per,int Dilantik sebagai hakim Mahkamah Tinggi to menjadi pesuruhjaya kehakiman bagi apa-apa tempoh atau apa-apa maksud yang dinyatakan dalam perintah it orang yang dilantik sedemikian hendaklah mempunyai lakasana untuk mepa lakasana jua yang dilakukan olehnya apabila bertindak mengikut pelantikannya hendaklah mempunyai kesahan dan kesan yang sama seolah-olah dilakukan oleh seorang s hakim Mahkamah itu, dan berkenaan dengan apa-apa yang jua yang di hakim Mahkamah it.

(2) Peruntukan Fasal (2) dan (5) Perkara 124 hendaklah terpakai bagi seseorang pesuruhjaya kehakiman sebagaimana peruntukan it terpakai bagi hakim Mahkamah Tinggi.

Perkara 122B. Pelantikan hakim-hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan dan Mahkamah Tinggi.

(1) Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan, President Mahkamah Rayuan dan Hakim-Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi dan (tertakluk kepada Perkara 122C) hakim-hakim yangin Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan dan Mahkamah Tinggi hendaklah dilantinggi hendaklah atas nasihat Perdana Menteri, selepas berunding dengan Majlis Raja-Raja.

(2) Sebelum memberikan nasihatnya di bawah Fasal (1) tentang pelantikan seseorang hakim, selain Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan, Perdana Menteri hendaklah berunding dengan Ketua Hakim Negara.

(3) Sebelum memberikan nasihatnya di bawah Fasal (1) tentang pelantikan Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi, Perdana Menteri hendaklah berunding dengan Hakim Besar setiap Mahkamah Tinggi dan, jika pelantikan itu ialah pelantikan ke Mahkamah Tinggi di Sabana Menteri bagi setiap Negeri Sabah dan Sarawak.

(4) Sebelum memberikan nasihatnya di bawah Fasal (1) tentang pelantikan seseorang hakim selain Ketua Hakim Negara, Presiden atau seseorang Hakim Besar, Perdana Menteri hendaklah berunding dengan Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan, jika pelka Rayuan, pelantikan en pelantikan Mahkamah Rayuan dan, pelantikan en mana-mana satu Mahkamah Tinggi, dengan Hakim Besar Mahkamah itu.

(5) Perkara 122AA sebagaimana Perkara ini terpakai bagi pelantikan seseorang hakim mahkamah itu, selain Hakim Besar.

(6) Walau apa woordspeling tarikh pelantikan mereka masing-masing sebagai hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan atau Mahkamah Tinggi, Yang di-Pertuan Agong, yang bertindak atas nasihat Perdana Menteri yang diberikan de selepas berunding ke hakim sesama mereka sendiri.

Perkara 122C. Pertukaran hakim dari suatu Mahkamah Tinggi ke suatu Mahkamah Tinggi lain.

Perkara 122B tidaklah terpakai bagi pertukaran seseorang hakim dari suatu Mahkamah Tinggi ke suatu Mahkamah Tinggi yang lain, melainkan jika pertukaran it adalah sebagai Hakim Besar atau pertukaran Hakim Besareh dan pertukaranik Persekutuan, selepas berunding dengan Hakim-Hakim Besar bagi kedua-dua Mahkamah Tinggi itu.

Perkara 123. Kelayakan hakim-hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan dan Mahkamah Tinggi.

Seseorang layak dilantik di bawah Perkara 122B sebagai hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, sebagai hakim Mahkamah Rayuan atau sebagai hakim mana-mana Mahkamah Tinggi jika—

(a) dia seorang warganegara dan (b) bagi tempoh sepuluh tahun sebelum pelantikannya dia telah menjadi peguam bela bagi mahkamah itu atau mana-mana satu daripada mahkamah itu antu menjadi anggota perkhidmatan kehakiman dan pertuundangan menjadi peguam bela dan pada suatu masa lain berkhidmat sebagai anggota perkhidmatan kehakiman en perundangan Persekutuan atau perkhidmatan perundangan sesuatu Negeri.

Perkara 124. Sumpah jawatan hakim.

(1) Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan, sebelum menjalankan fungsi jawatannya, hendaklah mengangkat dan menandatangani sumpah jawatan dan sumpah setia yang dinyatakan dalam Jadual Keenam, dan hendaklah berbuat demikian di Hadapan Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

(2) Hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan atau Mahkamah Tinggi, selain Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan, sebelum menjalankan fungsi seorang hakim hendaklah mengangkat dan menandatangani sumpah jawatan dan sumpata setia yang di (2A) Seseorang yang mengangkat sumpah apabila menjadi President Mahkamah Rayuan hendaklah berbuat demikian di hadapan hakim kanan yang ada bagi Mahkamah Rayuan.

(3) Seseorang yang mengangkat sumpah apabila menjadi Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi hendaklah berbuat demikian di hadapan hakim kanan yang ada bagi Mahkamah Tinggi itu.

(4) Seseorang yang mengangkat sumpah apabila menjadi Hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan hendaklah berbuat demikian di hadapan Ketua Hakim Negara atau, jika Ketua Hakim Negara tidak ada, di hadapan hakim yang kanan selepasnya yang ada bagiku.

(4A) Seseorang yang mengangkat sumpah apabila menjadi hakim Mahkamah Rayuan hendaklah berbuat demikian di hadapan Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan atau, jika Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan tidak ada, di hadapan hakim yang kanan selepasnya Mahkam yang bagnya ada.

(5) Seseorang yang mengangkat sumpah apabila menjadi hakim Mahkamah Tinggi (tetapi bukan Hakim Besar) hendaklah berbuat demikian di hadapan Hakim Besar Mahkamah itu atau, jika Hakim Besar tidak ada, di hadapan yang hakim yangyaan.

Perkara 125. Tempoh jawatan dan saraan hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan.

(1) Tertakluk kepada peruntukan Fasal (2) hingga (5), seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan hendaklah memegang jawatan sehingga dia mencapai umur enam puluh enam tahun atau sehingga suatu masa ke dakmudiannya ke yang diluluskan oleh daripada enam bulan selepas dia mencapai umur enam puluh enam tahun.

(2) Seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan boleh pada bila-bila masa meletakkan jawatannya melalui surat yang ditandatangani sendiri olehnya yang ditujukan kepada Yang di-Pertuan Agong tetapi tidak boleh dipecat daripada jawatan per kerikukan mengikut.

(3) Jika Perdana Menteri, atau Ketua Hakim Negara selepas berunding dengan Perdana Menteri, membuat representasi kepada Yang di-Pertuan Agong dengan menyatakan bahawa seseorang hakim Mahkamah di persekutuan patut dipecat atas alasan apa-apa pe Fasal (3B) atau atas alasan tidak berdaya, oleh sebab kelemahan tubuh atau akal atau apa-apa sebab lain, voor menunaikan fungsi jawatannya dengan sepatutnya, maka Yang di-Pertuan Agong hendaklah melantik suatuk tribunal assige padikut dan boleh atas syor tribunaal itu memecat hakim itu daripada jawatan.

(3A) Jika seseorang hakim telah melakukan pelanggaran mana-mana peruntukan kod etika yang ditetapkan di bawah Fasal (3B) tetapi Ketua Hakim Negara berpendapat bahawa pelanggaran itu tidak mewajarkan hakim itu dirulantjukkan kepadasal (4) boleh merujukkan hakim it it suatu badan yang ditubuhkan di bawah andang-undang persekutuan toukededalican pelanggaran ititu.

(3B) Yang di-Pertuan Agong atas syor Ketua Hakim Negara, President Mahkamah Rayuan dan Hakim-Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi boleh, selepas berunding dengan Perdana Menteri, menetapkan secara bertulis suatu kod etika yang hendaklah per juga mengan yang boleh dikenakan selain pemecatan seseorang hakim daripada jawatannya di bawah Fasal (3), berhubung dengan pelanggaran mana-mana peruntukan kod etika itu.

(3C) Kod etika yang ditetapkan di bawah Fasal (3B) hendaklah dipatuhi oleh tiap-tiap hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan dan tiap-tiap pesuruhjaya kehakiman.

(4) Tribunal yang dilantik di bawah Fasal (3) hendaklah terdiri daripada tidak kurang daripada lima orang yang memegang atau pernah memegang jawatan sebagai hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan atau Mahkamah Tinggi, atau, jika ternyata-ketu sedemikian dibuat, orang yang memegang atau pernah memegang jawatan yang setaraf dengannya di mana-mana bahagian lain di dalam Komanwel, dan tribunal itu hendaklah diketuai oleh anggota sangtkanan mengikut susunan yang berikut, ia Besar mengikut keutamaan mereka sesama mereka sendiri, dan anggota lain mengikut tarikh pelantikan mereka memegang jawatan yang melayakkan mereka menjadi anggota (antara dua orang anggota, dengan yang lebih tua mendahului yang ji lebitaria mud).

(5) Sementara menanti apa-apa rujukan dan laporan di bawah Fasal (3) Yang di-Pertuan Agong boleh atas syor Perdana Menteri dan, dalam hal mana-mana hakim lain selepas berunding dengan Ketua Hakim Negara, menggantung seseorang hakim Mahkamahripada men schimmels.

(6) Parlimen hendaklah melalui undang-undang membuat peruntukan bagi saraan hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, dan saraan yang diperuntukkan sedemikian hendaklah dipertanggungkan pada Kumpulan Wang Disatukan.

(6A) Tertakluk kepada peruntukan Perkara ini, Parlimen boleh melalui undang-undang membuat peruntukan bagi terma jawatan hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan selain saraan mereka.

(7) Saraan dan terma lain jawatan (termasuk hak pencen) bagi seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan tidak boleh, selepas pelantikannya, diubah menjadi kurang baik baginya.

(8) Walau apa woordspeling Fasal (1), kesahan apa-apa jua yang dilakukan oleh seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan tidak boleh dipersoalkan atas alasan bahawa dia telah mencapai umur yang dia dikehendaki bersara.

(9) Perkara ini hendaklah terpakai bagi seseorang hakim Mahkamah Rayuan dan bagi seseorang hakim Mahkamah Tinggi sebagaimana Perkara ini terpakai bagi seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, kecuali bahawa sebelum menggantung shakeseormka bawah Fasal (5), Yang di-Pertuan Agong hendaklah berunding dengan President Mahkamah Rayuan atau Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi itu dan bukan Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan.

(10) President Mahkamah Rayuan dan Hakim-Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi bertanggungjawab kepada Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan.

Perkara 125A. Penjalanan kuasa oleh hakim-hakim.

(1) Walau apa-pun apa-apa jua yang tekandung dalam Perlembagaan ini, dengan ini ditegaskan bahawa—

(a) Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan dan seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan boleh menjalankan semua atau mana-mana kuasa hakim Mahkamah Rayuan dan hakim Mahkamah Tinggi (aa) Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan dan seseorang hakim dan (b) seseorang hakim Mahkamah Tinggi di Malaya boleh menjalankan semua atau mana-mana kuasa hakim Mahkamah Tinggi di Sabah dan Sarawak, dan sebaliknya.

(2) Peruntukan Perkara ini hendaklah disifatkan telah menjadi suatu bahagian perlu Perlembagaan ini mulai dari Hari Maleisië.

Perkara 126. Kuasa menghukum kerana penghinaan.

Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan atau Mahkamah Tinggi berkuasa menghukum apa-apa penghinaan terhadapnya.

Perkara 127. Sekatan mengenai perbincangan di dalam Parlimen tentang kelakuan hakim

Kelakuan seseorang hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan, Mahkamah Rayuan atau Mahkamah Tinggi tidaklah boleh dibincangkan di dalam mana-mana satu Majlis Parlimen kecuali atas suatu usul khusus yang notis mengenainya telah diberikan oleh tidak kurang daripada satu perempat daripada jumlah bilangan ahli Majlis Parlimen itu, dan tidaklah boleh dibincangkan di dalam Dewan Undangan mana-mana Negeri.

Perkara 128. Bidang kuasa Mahkamah Persekutuan.

(1) Hanya Mahkamah Persekutuan sahaja, dan tidak mana-mana mahkamah lain, mempunyai bidang kuasa bagi memutuskan mengikut mana-mana kaedah mahkamah yang mengawal selia penjalanan bidang kuasa sedemikian—

(a) apa-apa soal sama ada sesuatu undang-undang yang dibuat oleh Parlimen atau Badan Perundangan sesuatu Negeri adalah tidak sah atas alasan bahawa undang-undang itu membuat peruntukan mengenai sesuatu perkara yang mengenainya Parlimen atau, mengikut mana-mana yang berkenaan, Badan Perundangan Negeri itu tidak mempunyai kuasa untuk membuat undang-undang dan (b) pertikaian atas apa-apa soal lain antara Negeri dengan Negeri atau antara Persekutuan dengan mana-mana Negeri.

(2) Tanpa menjelaskan apa-apa bidang kuasa rayuan Mahkamah Persekutuan, jika dalam mana-mana prosiding di hadapan suatu mahkamah lain suatu soal berbangkit tentang kesan mana-mana peruntukan Perlembagaan ini, Mahkamah Persekutuan mempunyai bidang kuasa (tertakluk kepada mana-mana kaedah mahkamah yang mengawal selia perjalanan bidang kuasa itu) untuk memutuskan soal itu dan menghantar balik kes itu kepada mahkamah yang satu lagi untuk dibereskan mengikut keputusan itu.

(3) Bidang kuasa Mahkamah Persekutuan untuk memutuskan rayuan dari Mahkamah Rayuan, Mahkamah Tinggi atau seorang hakim Mahkamah itu hendaklah sebagaimana yang diperuntukkan oleh undang-undag persekutuan.

Perkara 129. (Bidang kuasa khas Mahkamah Agung tentang tafsiran Perlembagaan-Dimansuhkan).

Perkara 130. Bidang kuasa nasihat Mahkamah Persekutuan.

Yang di-Pertuan Agong boleh merujukkan kepada Mahkamah Persekutuan untuk pendapatnya apa-apa soal tentang kesan mana-mana peruntukan Perlembagaan ini yang telah berbangkit atau yang tampak padanya mungkin berbangkit, dan Mahkamah Persekutuan hendaklah mengumumkan pendapatnya tentang apa-apa soal yang dirujukkan sedemikian kepadanya itu di dalam mahkamah terbuka.

Perkara 131. (Rayuan daripada Mahkamah Persekutan - Dimansuhkan).

Perkara 131A. Peruntukan berkenaan dengan ketidakupayaan, dsb. Ketua Hakim Negara, Presiden atau Hakim Besar.

(1) Apa-apa peruntukan yang dibuat oleh undang-undang persekutuan supaya fungsi Ketua Hakim Negara Mahkamah Persekutuan atau Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan atau Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi dilaksanakan oleh seorang hakim lain Mahkamah Persekutuan sekiranya berlaku kekosongan dalam jawatan itu atau sekiranya Ketua Hakim Negara, Presiden atau Hakim Besar itu tidak berdaya menjalankan fungsinya, bolehlah meliputi fungsinya di bawah Perlembagaan ini.

(2) Apa-apa peruntukan yang dibuat oleh undang-undang persekutuan supaya fungsi Presiden Mahkamah Rayuan atau Hakim Besar Mahkamah Tinggi dilaksanakan oleh seorang hakim lain Mahkamah Rayuan atau Mahkamah Tinggi, mengikut mana-mana yang berkenaan, sekiranya berlaku kekosongan dalam jawatan itu atau sekiranya Presiden atau Hakim Besar itu tidak berdaya menjalankan fungsinya, bolehlah meliputi fungsi Presiden atau Hakim Besar di bawah Perlembagaan ini selain fungsi sebagai hakim Mahkamah Persekutuan.


یواس‌اس آتالا (ای‌پی‌ای-۱۳۰)

یواس‌اس آتالا (ای‌پی‌ای-۱۳۰) (به انگلیسی: USS Attala (APA-130) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۵۵ فوت (۱۳۹ متر) بود. کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۴ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس آتالا (ای‌پی‌ای-۱۳۰)
پیشینه
مالک
: ۱۸ ژوئیه ۱۹۴۴
کار: ۲۷ سپتامبر ۱۹۴۴
اعزام: ۳۰ نوامبر ۱۹۴۴
اصلی
: 6,873 tons
: ۴۵۵ فوت (۱۳۹ متر)
: ۶۲ فوت (۱۹ متر)
: ۲۴ فوت (۷٫۳ متر)
: 17 knots

یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Attala-APA-130 - History

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AMPHIBIOUS FORCES OF WWII/USNTS SAMPSON
Welcome to the Amphibs/Sampson Website Message Board. Due to spammers posting, it is moderated. Posts will not be visible until I mark them approved. They can also be out of sequence due to spam being deleted, but the message chain being marked as updated. I also delete partisan political commentary. Russ
Back to Website

I liked the Young America better than the APA ships that I had been associated with. My division left Maui and were taken by an APA to Saipan and Tinian in the Marianas.

If you can direct me to a picture I would be pleased.


Rita Higgins-Armstrong
(daughter)

    -- Russ Padden - webmaster, 06:58:49 04/02/06 Sun
      -- jill oliver, 14:38:08 05/23/08 Fri
        -- Tate Jones, 16:59:53 07/22/08 Tue
          -- Anne Kutzbach, 17:12:50 03/08/10 Mon
            -- Richard, 22:36:21 03/12/10 Fri
            -- Tate Jones, 09:56:46 12/07/07 Fri
            -- Tate Jones, 09:59:40 12/07/07 Fri
            -- K. Arnold, 19:49:46 08/08/07 Wed -- Tate Jones, 10:02:22 12/07/07 Fri -- Harvey Rasmussen, 13:54:39 03/11/09 Wed
              -- paul pullig, 19:25:47 06/06/10 Sun

            Am searching for anyone who may remember my Dad, William J. McMahon who served on her till he was discharged from active duty Jan 7, 1946.

            He 'booted' from Sampson, NY, Co.251 in May 1944.

            May 31,2010 - I should have mentioned that I have a 'good' copy of Sampson photo of Company 251, dated May 10, 1944, and would gladly send it to anyone as a .jpg file.

              -- Robert Gourley, 11:40:29 02/03/05 Thu -- Jim Baize, 14:35:13 02/20/05 Sun -- David Garrido, 15:44:59 02/22/05 Tue -- Lester Morris, 12:29:34 05/25/10 Tue
              -- Rudy Perilli, 16:53:18 04/23/10 Fri -- Bob Rothsteein, 15:18:15 05/16/10 Sun -- Bob Rothstein, 15:35:10 05/16/10 Sun -- Ray Purcell, 16:20:08 05/17/10 Mon

            Grant W.Nelson Sr
            144 Coolidge St
            Owatonna Mn. 55060

              -- Dawn Weber, 03:59:51 05/20/08 Tue
                -- Jay P. Homan, 04:40:00 07/05/08 Sat -- Jay P. Homan, 00:00:29 07/07/08 Mon
                  -- Kyra Jones Osmus, 18:16:37 08/31/09 Mon

                bob efaw
                Seaman 2nd, Radar Striker

                  -- Russ Padden - webmaster, 04:00:39 01/28/08 Mon
                    -- Phil Dooley, 13:03:46 03/08/08 Sat
                      -- Russ Padden - webmaster, 16:16:38 03/08/08 Sat
                        -- Phil Dooley, 12:11:36 03/09/08 Sun
                        -- E. Larson, 18:47:56 09/27/06 Wed
                          -- TKern, 15:05:52 09/30/06 Sat -- TKern, 15:07:59 09/30/06 Sat
                            -- TKern, 05:36:01 12/04/09 Fri

                          bill de jarnatt. little rock, ar.

                          My dad,Matthew F Rennie Jr, served in the pacific theatre in WWII and served on board the LCT 702 and LST 576. He also attended at Sampson NY..not sure of the date. He passed in Nov 07 and was 82 years old. Anyone who might have info or pictures of his ships or class, it would be appreciated if you contacted me or forwarded the info.

                          Also would love to communicate with any of those veterans who may have been in this group.

                          Irwin "Irv" Fruchterman trained at Sampson NY, after enlisting in January of 1945. Any suggestions on how to track down which company he belonged to?

                          He then served on the following ships:
                          USS Cavallaro (dates unknown)
                          USS Howorth (?- until it's decommissioning)
                          USS Rooks (for 1 month until it's decommissiong)
                          USS McCord

                          Any info, or suggestions as to paths of research about his time at sea would be greatly appreciated.

                            -- Kathy, 15:43:33 03/15/07 Thu -- Mike Adams, 09:31:59 05/28/07 Mon
                              -- Zachary Eggebeen, 19:45:35 07/13/08 Sun -- Paula Church, 11:18:19 04/29/09 Wed

                            I'm looking for a photograph of my grandfather, Paolino Sarti, in his navy uniform. I looked through the photos on this site but was unable to find him. I'm not sure which training company he was in.

                            He trained at Sampson from 10/16/43 - 2/24/44. He went on to serve on the USS Alaska, CB-1 (plank owner).

                            Aside from photos, any other information anyone has would be greatly appreciated!

                            I've received several emails today spewing the opposite - they disgust me an dishonor the brave men who fought and those who died.

                            Russ Padden webmaster for the Amphibs - descended from Normans

                            I would like to know what the "V-6" means.

                            Also, if he was a S1c and a "striker" (I assume this is a type of gunner?) what patches, if any, would he wear on his uniform?

                            PS Russ, Thanks for letting me know about the about the accidental deletion.

                              -- JOE DEVINE, 07:30:09 02/23/09 Mon -- Christopher Montagna, 19:06:06 02/24/09 Tue -- Robert D. Hall, Jr., 14:20:41 03/08/09 Sun -- Irv, 08:50:55 03/23/09 Mon -- TED LEWIS, 19:38:17 05/05/09 Tue

                            There is going to be a WWII airshow May 16th & 17th at the Virginia Beach VA airport. Check out the web site.

                            <a rel=nofollow target=_blank href="http://www.militaryaviationmuseum.org/events_airshow.html">http://www.militaryaviationmuseum.org/events_airshow.html</a>

                            Hope to hear from someone.
                            Thanks

                            I'm an engraver and have been asked to make a plaque for a veteran that contains an image of an LST. Specifically this is #24 so you know which version.

                            What I am looking for and not able to find is a clip art image in either bmp. or wmf. format that I can import into my application.

                            Can anyone help me with this? I have already spent several hours on this job, we will lose money on this job but I don't want to give up and I do want this plaque done the way it was requested.

                            Any assistance will be greatly appreciated and for all you Vets that read this post, THANK YOU for your service to our country.

                            I am intrigued with your images from the Hospital.

                            You mentioned on the site that when you went to the archives, you were given free reign.

                            1. Other than images, what other material related to the hospital is in the archives you referred to

                            2. Where is this material located?

                            While I live on the west coast, I make frequent visits east to do research at the National Archives. I have family (I was born. ) in upstate New york. it would be easy to pop up to God's Country to do some research re the Sampson Naval Hospital.

                            Tom Snyder
                            CAPT, MC, USNR, RET

                              -- Felix Cervantes, 12:03:37 11/06/08 Thu
                                -- Keith Baxter, 07:35:11 11/09/08 Sun
                                  -- Russ Padden - webmaster, 09:53:19 11/09/08 Sun
                                    -- keith baxter, 14:15:26 11/09/08 Sun

                                  Teacher, healer, brother Scout and friend, Doc touched countless many lives in fantastic and positive ways that will continue to live on through all of us. Words simply cannot express our emotions at this time of great loss. Arrangements will be announced as they are finalized, please check back for updates.
                                  <a rel=nofollow target=_blank href="http://ktny.blogspot.com/2008/10/dear-friend-passes.html">http://ktny.blogspot.com/2008/10/dear-friend-passes.html</a>

                                  ===========
                                  Posted here by Russ:
                                  Doc Smith was one of 3 men who had a major influence on my life and on the lives of thousands of boys. When I was in the troop there were over 100 boys in it (1964-1968) and I think we were about a third of the Washington Irving Council.
                                  I was active in Scouts in one way or another for over 20 years as a way of saying Thank You for what he did for all of us. At one point I was a Scout Master in one Town and Assistant Cubmaster in another.
                                  Plans for memorial service are being finalized, and they will be held on November 1, 2008. Check the link from the website for updates. I have been tracking down some of the men who were in the Troop when I was and letting them know. Each of them has commented on how great a man Doc was.

                                  There are men who leave their mark and men who leave a stain. Doc Smith left his mark and the world is a better place because he was here.

                                  Russ Padden - Patrol Leader - Head Hunter Patrol 1966-1967.

                                  I was going through the pictures and was able to identify my grandfather, PhM3c Arthur Birnie, in one of the photos. If it's possible to add his name to the photo caption, that would be great. It's Photo #2 in the Sampson Hospital photos. My grandfather is on the far right.

                                  He was 38 when WWII started and had already served in the Royal Army Medical Corps in the 20's. He was from Belfast.

                                  If anyone remembers him, I'd like to hear it. Bedankt.

                                  His name was Marvin Ravinsky and I know he was onboard the USS Mellette during his WW2 wartime service, because I found a card that mentioned it among his belongings after he died.

                                  I have created an online memorial for him at <a rel=nofollow target=_blank href="http://www.findagrave.com">http://www.findagrave.com</a> if anyone would like to visit it and leave memorial notes. <a rel=nofollow target=_blank href="http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=mred&MSid=46507071&MREid=46507071">http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=mred&MSid=46507071&MREid=46507071</a>


                                  Marvin passed away on August 12, 2008. His funeral was on August 18th.

                                  He lived a very sad, impoverished life after his wartime service, something I found out about after the hospital found me in the phone book as the only person locally still bearing his surname. I did my best to help make up for it by making sure he got the military honors he deserved, when he passed away (which happened only a week or so after I first met him!)

                                  God bless you for what you are doing to keep alive the stories of these brave men who served. I am 48 years old and feel a duty to keep the memories alive of the Greatest Generation, of which my late parents were also a part.

                                    -- Russ Padden, 15:56:19 08/18/08 Mon -- Rory Hooper, 17:34:50 08/18/08 Mon
                                      -- Russ Padden, 17:49:42 08/18/08 Mon
                                        -- Rory Hooper, 17:40:56 08/22/08 Fri
                                          -- Russ Padden, 16:22:36 08/25/08 Mon

                                        Angie played baseball with 20th Century Baseball Team prior to going into the navy.

                                        . you were my lower bunk mate.

                                        I am a martial artist and book collector. (especially very rare h2h manuals)

                                        Does anybody know something about unarmed combat manuals which had been used by japanese navy units?

                                        Thank you very much in advance!!

                                        Does this mean he was with Company: 203 Unit: Dewey
                                        Squad 2? If not, what does it mean?

                                        Thanks in advancefor yoru help,

                                        Also, he apparently was in the U S Naval Hospital in March 1945 the further designation there was: 925-51-64.


                                        History of Animal Testing

                                        Marmoset monkeys used for testing being offered marshmallows in an animal research facility.
                                        Source: Ben Goldacre, “Animal Research Study Shows Many Tests Are Full of Flaws,” theguardian.com, Jan. 22, 2010

                                        An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the United States for scientific and commercial testing. [2] Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care uses. Research on living animals has been practiced since at least 500 BC.

                                        Proponents of animal testing say that it has enabled the development of numerous life-saving treatments for both humans and animals, that there is no alternative method for researching a complete living organism, and that strict regulations prevent the mistreatment of animals in laboratories.

                                        Opponents of animal testing say that it is cruel and inhumane to experiment on animals, that alternative methods available to researchers can replace animal testing, and that animals are so different from human beings that research on animals often yields irrelevant results.

                                        Regulations

                                        Animal testing in the United States is regulated by the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA), passed in 1966 and amended in 1970, 1976, and 1985. [27] The AWA defines “animal” as “any live or dead dog, cat, monkey (nonhuman primate mammal), guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, or such other warm blooded animal.” The AWA excludes birds, rats and mice bred for research, cold-blooded animals, and farm animals used for food and other purposes. [3]

                                        The AWA requires that each research facility develop an internal Institutional Animal Committee (more commonly known as an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, or IACUC) to “represent society’s concerns regarding the welfare of animal subjects.” The Committee must be comprised of at least three members. One member must be a veterinarian and one must be unaffiliated with the institution.

                                        While the AWA regulates the housing and transportation of animals used for research, it does not regulate the experiments themselves. The US Congress Conference Committee stated at the time of the bill’s passage that it wanted “to provide protection for the researcher… by exempting from regulations all animals during actual research and experimentation… It is not the intention of the committee to interfere in any way with research or experimentation.” [66]

                                        Animal studies funded by US Public Health Service (PHS) agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are further regulated by the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. [27] All PHS funded institutions must base their animal care standards on the AWA and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (also known as “the Guide“), prepared by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research at the National Research Council. Unlike the AWA, the Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Guide cover all vertebrate animals used for research, including birds, rats and mice. De Guide “establishes the minimum ethical, practice, and care standards for researchers and their institutions,” including environment and housing standards and required veterinary care. De Guide stipulates that “the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain when consistent with sound scientific practices, is imperative.” [71]

                                        Undercover photo taken in 1981 by a PETA activist of a monkey at the Institute for Biological Research in Silver Spring, MD.
                                        Source: wikipedia.org (accessed Oct. 22, 2013)

                                        The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) reports the number of animals used for research each year, though it excludes animals not covered by the AWA. For fiscal year 2010 (the latest year for which data are available as of Oct. 11, 2013), 1,134,693 animals were reported. [26] Since the data excludes cold-blooded animals, farm animals used for food, and birds, rats, and mice bred for use in research, the total number of animals used for testing is unknown. Estimates of the number of animals not counted by APHIS range from 85%-96% of the total of all animals used for testing. [2][65][72][1]

                                        The USDA breaks down its data by three categories of pain type: animals that experience pain during their use in research but are given drugs to alleviate it (339,769 animals in 2010) animals who experience pain and are not given drugs (97,123) and animals who do not experience pain and are not given drugs (697,801). [26]

                                        The US Food and Drug Administration, which regulates the development of new medications, states that “At the preclinical stage, the FDA will generally ask, at a minimum, that sponsors… determine the acute toxicity of the drug in at least two species of animals.” [73]

                                        Public Opinion

                                        A public outcry over animal testing and the treatment of animals in general broke out in the United States in the mid-1960s, leading to the passage of the AWA. An article in the November 29, 1965 issue of Sports Illustrated about Pepper, a farmer’s pet Dalmation that was kidnapped and sold into experimentation, is believed to have been the initial catalyst for the rise in anti-testing sentiment. [74] Pepper died after researchers attempted to implant an experimental cardiac pacemaker in her body. [75]

                                        A May 2013 Gallup poll found that 56% of Americans say medical testing on animals is morally acceptable (down from 65% in 2001), with 39% saying it is morally wrong. [76] Younger Americans are less likely to accept animal testing. 47% of people aged 18-34 say that animal testing is morally acceptable, whereas 60% of people aged 35-54 and 61% of people aged 55 and older say it is morally acceptable. [77] 67% of registered voters in the US are opposed to using animals to test cosmetics and personal care products, according to a 2013 nationwide poll conducted by Lake Research Partners. The poll found that women are more likely to object, with 76% of women under 50 and 70% of women over 50 being opposed to animal testing, and 63% of men under and over 50 being opposed. 52% of voters said they feel safer using a product that was tested using non-animal methods, while 18% said they feel safer with products tested on animals. [78]

                                        Vroege geschiedenis

                                        Descriptions of the dissection of live animals have been found in ancient Greek writings from as early as circa 500 BC. Physician-scientists such as Aristotle, Herophilus, and Erasistratus performed the experiments to discover the functions of living organisms. [79][80] Vivisection (dissection of a living organism) was practiced on human criminals in ancient Rome and Alexandria, but prohibitions against mutilation of the human body in ancient Greece led to a reliance on animal subjects. Aristotle believed that animals lacked intelligence, and so the notions of justice and injustice did not apply to them. Theophrastus, a successor to Aristotle, disagreed, objecting to the vivisection of animals on the grounds that, like humans, they can feel pain, and causing pain to animals was an affront to the gods. [80]

                                        Vivisection performed on a dog, painted by Emile-Edouard Mouchy in 1832.
                                        Source: Lindsey Nield, “History: The Nature of the Beast,” bluesci.org, Jan. 4, 2010

                                        Roman physician and philosopher Galen (130-200 AD), whose theories of medicine were influential throughout Europe for fifteen centuries, engaged in the public dissection of animals (including an elephant), which was a popular form of entertainment at the time. [81][80] Galen also engaged in animal vivisection in order to develop theories on human anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. [82] In one of his experiments, he demonstrated that arteries, which were believed by earlier physicians to contain air, actually contained blood. Galen believed that animal physiology was very similar to that of human beings, but despite this similarity he had little sympathy for the animals on which he experimented. Galen recommended that his students vivisect animals “without pity or compassion” and warned that the “unpleasing expression of the ape when it is being vivisected” was to be expected. [80]

                                        French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), who occasionally experimented on live animals, including at least one rabbit, as well as eels and fish, believed that animals were “automata” who could not experience pain or suffer the way that humans do. [66] Descartes recognized that animals could feel, but because they could not think, he argued, they were unable to consciously experience those feelings. [83]

                                        English Physician William Harvey (1578-1657) discovered that the heart, and not the lungs, circulated blood throughout the body as a result of his experiments on living animals. [84][85]

                                        Animal Testing in the 1800s and Early 1900s

                                        There was little public objection to animal experimentation until the 19th Century, when the increased adoption of domestic pets fueled interest in an anti-vivisection movement, primarily in England. This trend culminated in the founding of the Society for the Protection of Animals Liable to Vivisection in 1875, followed by the formation of similar groups. [79][87]

                                        One of the first proponents of animal testing to respond to the growing anti-testing movement was French physiologist Claude Bernard in his Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865). Bernard argued that experimenting on animals was ethical because of the benefits to medicine and the extension of human life. [79]

                                        Queen Victoria was an early opponent of animal testing in England, according to a letter written by her private secretary in 1875: “The Queen has been dreadfully shocked at the details of some of these [animal research] practices, and is most anxious to put a stop to them.” [88] Soon the anti-vivisection campaign became strong enough to pressure lawmakers into establishing the first laws controlling the use of animals for research: Great Britain’s Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876. [15]

                                        Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) demonstrated the “conditioned reflex” by training dogs to salivate upon hearing the sound of a bell or electric buzzer. In order to measure “the intensity of the salivary reflex,” wrote Pavlov, the dogs were subjected to a “minor operation, which consists in the transplantation of the opening of the salivary duct from its natural place on the mucous membrane of the mouth to the outside skin.” A “small glass funnel” was then attached to the salivary duct opening with a “special cement.” [86][75]

                                        A mouse with an “ear” seeded from implanted cow cartilage cells growing on its back, the result of a 1997 experiment created by Joseph and Charles Vacanti to explore the possibility of fabricating body parts for plastic and reconstructive surgery.
                                        Source: thedailytouch.com, Mar. 20, 2013

                                        In 1959, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by zoologist William Russell and microbiologist Rex Burch was published in England. The book laid out the principle of the “Three Rs” for using animals in research humanely: Replacement (replacing the use of animals with alternative research methods), Reduction (minimizing the use of animals whenever possible), and Refinement (reducing suffering and improving animals’ living conditions). [89] The “Three Rs” were incorporated into the AWA and have formed the basis of many international animal welfare laws. [90][91]

                                        Animals in Space and the Military

                                        Since as early as 1948, animals have been used by the US space program for testing such aspects of space travel as the effects of prolonged weightlessness. After several monkeys died in unmanned space flights carried out during the 1940s, the first monkey to survive a space flight was Yorick, recovered from an Aerobee missile flight on Sep. 20, 1951. However, Yorick died several hours after landing, possibly due to heat stress. [7][116] The first living creature to orbit the Earth was Laika, a stray dog sent into space on the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 in Nov. 1957. Laika died of “overheating and panic” early in the mission, according to the BBC. [92] The record for the most animals sent into space was set Apr. 17, 1998, when more than two thousand animals, including rats, mice, fish, crickets, and snails, were launched into space on the shuttle Columbia (along with the seven-member human crew) for neurological testing. [7][8]

                                        Since the Vietnam war, animals have also been used by the US military. The US Department of Defense used 488,237 animals for research and combat trauma training (“live tissue training”) in fiscal year 2007 (the latest year for which data are available), which included subjecting anesthetized goats and pigs to gunshot wounds, burns, and amputations for the training of military medics. [6][93] In February 2013, after an escalation of opposition by animal rights groups such as People for the Ethical Treatments of Animals (PETA), Congress ordered the Pentagon to present a written plan to phase out live tissue training. The US Coast Guard, however, which was at the center of a 2012 scandal involving videotaped footage of goats being mutilated as part of its live tissue training program, said in May 2013 that the program will continue. [94][95]

                                        The Modern Debate

                                        The 1975 publication of Animal Liberation by Australian philosopher Peter Singer galvanized the animal rights and anti-testing movements by popularizing the notion of “speciesism” as being analogous to racism, sexism, and other forms of prejudice. Addressing animal testing specifically, Singer predicted that “one day… our children’s children, reading about what was done in laboratories in the twentieth century, will feel the same sense of horror and incredulity… that we now feel when we read about the atrocities of the Roman gladiatorial arenas or the eighteenth-century slave trade.” [66]

                                        In 1981, an early victory by then-fledgling animal rights group People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) served to revitalize the anti-testing movement once again. A PETA activist working undercover at the Institute for Biological Research in Silver Spring, MD took photographs of monkeys in the facility that had engaged in self-mutilation due to stress. The laboratory’s director, Edward Taub, was charged with more than a dozen animal cruelty offences, and an especially notorious photo of a monkey in a harness with all four limbs restrained became a symbolic image for the animal rights movement. [96]

                                        In 2001, controversy erupted over animal experiments undertaken by a veterinarian at Ohio State University. Dr. Michael Podell infected cats with the feline AIDS virus in order to study why methamphetamine users deteriorate more quickly from the symptoms of AIDS. After receiving several death threats, Dr. Podell abandoned his academic career. [97] Over 60% of biomedical scientists polled by Nature magazine say “animal-rights activists present a real threat to essential biomedical research.” [35]

                                        A 2007 report by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences called for a reduction in the use of animal testing, recommending instead the increased use of in vitro methods using human cells. Though the report touted new technologies that could eventually eliminate the need for animal testing altogether, the authors acknowledged that “For the foreseeable future… targeted tests in animals would need to be used to complement the in vitro tests, because current methods cannot yet adequately mirror the metabolism of a whole animal.” [104]

                                        Pro animal testing billboard posted by the Foundation for Biomedical Research.
                                        Source: Jane E. Allen, “Animal Rights: Scientists’ Billboards Ask Whether You’d Save a Child or a Lab Rat,” abcnews.go.com, Apr. 14, 2011

                                        In Mar. 2013, the European Union banned the import and sale of cosmetic products that use ingredients tested on animals. Some proponents of animal testing objected, arguing that some animal tests had no non-animal equivalents. A spokesman for the trade association Cosmetics Europe stated it is likely “that consumers in Europe won’t have access to new products because we can’t ensure that some ingredients will be safe without access to suitable and adequate testing.” [98] India and Israel have also banned animal testing for cosmetic products, while the United States has no such ban in place. [99] China is the only major market where testing all cosmetics on animals is required by law, and foreign companies distributing their products to China must also have them tested on animals. [65][43] China has announced that its animal testing requirement will be waived for shampoo, perfume, and other so-called “non-special use cosmetics” manufactured by Chinese companies after June 2014. “Special use cosmetics,” including hair regrowth, hair removal, dye and permanent wave products, antiperspirant, and sunscreen, will continue to warrant mandatory animal testing. [114]

                                        After ceasing to breed chimpanzees for research in May 2007, the US National Institutes of Health announced in June 2013 that it would retire most of its chimpanzees (310 in total) over the next several years. While the decision was welcomed by animal rights groups, opponents said the decision would have a negative impact on the development of critical vaccines and treatments. The Texas Biomedical Research Institute released a statement claiming that the number of chimps to be retained (up to 50) was “not sufficient to enable the rapid development of better preventions and cures for hepatitis B and C, which kill a million people every year.” [100] On Nov. 18, 2015 the US National Institutes of Health announced that its remaining 50 research chimpanzees will be retired to the Federal Chimpanzee Sanctuary System. [117] Gabon remains the only country in the world that still experiments on chimpanzees. [4]

                                        The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a plan on Sep. 10, 2019 to reduce studies using mammal testing by 30% by 2025 and to eliminate the mammal testing altogether by 2035. [131] In Nov. 2019, the FDA enacted a policy allowing some lab animals used for animal testing to be sent to shelters and sanctuaries for adoption. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) adopted a similar policy in Aug. 2019 and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) did so in 2018. [146]

                                        Animal Testing and COVID-19

                                        The COVID-19 (coronavirus) global pandemic brought attention to the debate about animal testing as researchers sought to develop a vaccine for the virus as quickly as possible. Vaccines are traditionally tested on animals to ensure their safety and effectiveness. News broke in Mar. 2020 that there was a shortage of the genetically modified mice that were needed to test coronavirus vaccines. [133]

                                        Meanwhile, other companies tried new development techniques that allowed them to skip animal testing and start with human trials. Moderna Therapeutics used a synthetic copy of the virus genetic code instead of a weakened form of the virus. [143] The FDA approved an application for Moderna to begin clinical trials on a coronavirus vaccine on Mar. 4, 2020, and the first participant was dosed on Mar. 16, 2020. [147]

                                        A shortage of monkeys, including pink-faced rhesus macaques, threatened vaccine development at the beginning of the pandemic and as variants of COVID-19 were found. The monkeys were previously flown in from China, but a ban on wildlife imports from China forced researchers to look elsewhere, a difficult task as China previously supplied over 60% of research monkeys in the United States. [148]


                                        The First 'Dr. Death,' Jack Kevorkian, Helped 130 Patients Commit Suicide With Euthanasia

                                        Before D Magazine dubbed Christopher Duntsch “Dr. Death” for his trail of botched operations and dead bodies, there was another surgeon that went by that moniker, but for very different reasons — Dr. Jack Kevorkian.

                                        Murders A-Z is a collection of true crime stories that take an in-depth look at both little-known and infamous murders throughout history.

                                        Before D Magazine dubbed Christopher Duntsch “Dr. Death” for his trail of botched operations and dead bodies, there was another surgeon that went by that moniker, but for very different reasons. Starting in the late 1980s, pathologist Dr. Jack Kevorkian became a leading advocate for euthanasia and a practitioner of physician-assisted suicide.

                                        He claimed to have assisted in the suicides of more than 130 patients from 1990 to 1998, according to the Los Angeles Times. While Kevorkian was eventually convicted of second-degree murder and served eight years in prison, he is credited with igniting a national debate about euthanasia that would eventually lead to legislation like Oregon's Death with Dignity Act, which was enacted in 1997 and allows the terminally ill access to end of life drugs.

                                        Murad “Jack” Kevorkian was born in 1928 and grew up in Pontiac, MI, the second of three children born to Armenian immigrants. His parents had come to America in the waning days of the Ottoman Empire, fleeing the Armenian Genocide of 1915, according to ABC News. After graduating high school with honors, he attended the University of Michigan, where he earned his medical degree.

                                        Even as a resident pathologist, Kevorkian had a deep fascination with death. He would study dying patients, recording changes in their eyes to pinpoint the exact time of death, according to the Los Angeles Times. Years before his later infamy, nurses nicknamed him, “Dr. Death.” He would later propose conducting experiments on death row inmates, and successfully performed blood transfusions from the recently deceased to the living.

                                        After practicing pathology in California for a number of years, Kevorkian moved back to Michigan in the early 1980s. Toward the end of the decade, he began placing ads in local papers, reading, "Doctor Consultant for the terminally ill who wish to die with dignity," according to a 1992 Los Angeles Times profile. He created two devices, one he called a “Thanatron,” which delivered a fatal combination of drugs through an IV, the other known as the “Mercitron,” which administered deadly carbon monoxide through a gas mask. Kevorkian later embarked on a PR campaign to spread his message. Appearing on the daytime talk show “Donahue,” Kevorkian described the Thanatron as “dignified, humane and painless, and the patient can do it in the comfort of their own home at any time they want,” according to an episode of PBS’ “Frontline.”

                                        Following his press appearances, Kevorkian was contacted in 1989 by Janet Adkins of Portland, Oregon. The 54-year-old was suffering from Alzheimer's disease. After talking with Adkins and her husband, Kevorkian agreed to help her take her own life. On June 4, 1990, Adkins traveled to Michigan and was hooked up to one of Kevorkian's death machines in the back of his van. Adkins pressed a button, letting the poisons enter her bloodstream, and died within a few minutes. She penned a suicide note, which said, ''This is a decision taken in a normal state of mind and is fully considered. I have Alzheimer's disease and I do not want to let it progress any further. I do not want to put my family or myself through the agony of this terrible disease,” according to The New York Times.

                                        In December 1990, prosecutors in Oakland County, Michigan, decided not to pursue murder charges against Kevorkian, following a ruling at a preliminary hearing, at which a judge said there was no proof he had planned and carried out the death of Janet Adkins, according to The New York Times. The following fall, Kevorkian was at a rented cabin in Michigan, where two women suffering long-term pain and illness used his devices to commit suicide, according to “Frontline.” The next month, members of Michigan’s State Board of Medicine unanimously voted to suspend Kevorkian’s medical license, and eventually revoked it. Michigan Governor John Engler signed legislation that December making assisted suicide a felony.

                                        Over the following years Kevorkian assisted in myriad suicides, often using carbon monoxide, since he no longer had access to pharmaceuticals, due to his lack of a medical license. In 1994, Kevorkian went on trial for assisting in the suicide of Thomas Hyde, a 30-year-old man with Lou Gehrig's disease. He was the 17th person Kevorkian had helped commit suicide. After deliberating for nine hours, jurors acquitted him on all charges. Kevorkian was resolute in his mission following the first of his three acquittals: “Obviously, what are needed are guidelines on (assisted suicide), and that is the first priority to me,” he said, according to The New York Times.

                                        Kevorkian was tried and acquitted twice in 1996. He had come to treat his arrests and trials as a way to plead his case for a national medical policy for euthanasia, and drummed up press coverage by appearing wearing a ball and chain or dressed in Colonial garb, symbolic of what he considered antiquated laws and attitudes about suicide, according to “Frontline.” In November 1996, he was arrested again on 19 counts of assisted suicide. That case ended in a mistrial after Kevorkian's lawyer, Geoffrey Fieger, accused the state of "vindictive and malicious prosecution," according to The Washington Post.

                                        Kevorkian’s death count reached 100 in March 1998, according to “Frontline.” In November of that year, he was arrested on charges of first-degree murder after CBS's “60 Minutes” aired a segment that showed him personally administering a lethal injection to Thomas Youk, a 52-year-old man with Lou Gehrig's disease. A defiant Kevorkian had given the footage to the show, daring authorities to arrest him and saying, “This could never be a crime in any society which deems itself enlightened," according to CNN. Oakland County prosecutors took him up on his challenge, despite the Youk family professing their gratitude to Kevorkian for ending their loved one’s suffering.

                                        The fifth trial of Jack Kevorkian began in March 1999 and, for the first time, he decided to represent himself. It was not a good idea. He stumbled often, “asking witnesses legally inappropriate questions and raising impermissible legal arguments,” according to The New York Times. After deliberating for 13 hours, a jury found him guilty on the lesser count of murder in the second-degree, according to The Daily News, who quoted him saying, “That proves how corrupt the society is, and how malevolent are those who run it."

                                        The 70-year-old Kevorkian was sentenced to 10 to 25 years in prison. “When you purposely inject another human being with what you know is a lethal dose, that, sir, is murder,” the judge told him, according to The New York Times.

                                        Kevorkian’s conviction and sentence was upheld through numerous appeals despite health problems and his advanced age. After serving eight years, he was released in 2007 with time off for good behavior and a promise not to aid in any more suicides, according to NBC News. The following year he unsuccessfully ran for congress. The 2010 HBO film “You Don’t Know Jack” starred Al Pacino as Kevorkian and was directed by Academy Award winner Barry Levinson.

                                        In de resterende jaren van zijn leven bleef Kevorkian pleiten voor de rechten van terminaal zieke mensen om de omstandigheden van hun dood te kiezen en te beheersen. Zijn eigen einde kwam op 4 juni 2011, toen Kevorkian op 83-jarige leeftijd stierf in een ziekenhuis in Michigan aan een longtrombose. Euthanasie en hulp bij zelfdoding blijven illegaal in het grootste deel van de Verenigde Staten.

                                        Stem deze zomer af als Zuurstof onderzoekt de verbluffende gevallen van moorddadige artsen, verpleegkundigen en medische professionals in " Permissie om te doden, " première op zaterdag 8 augustus Bij 19:00 ET/PT. Gehost door gerenommeerde plastisch chirurg Dr. Terry Dubrow ("Botched"), de serie beschrijft de schrijnende verhalen van patiënten die in gevaar zijn gebracht door het verraderlijke gebruik van hun expertise door medische professionals.


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                                        1. Fezil

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